It’s time to look past all the myths and nonsense and get down to the actual science facts and findings.

Basic Science Fitness Facts

I have been doing some new research into fitness including weight loss, fat burning and muscle building. I wanted to know all the results and facts of the latest scientific research in the confusing world of fitness. So in this article I will share with you what I found out.

Much of it mirrors what I have said before, but here it is anyway.

We have four main body types or physical conditions which are.


The result of low muscle mass, body fat or both. Probably due to a lack of calories. Can be corrected by increased calorie intake and exercise.


Mostly the result of regularly exceeding more calories than the body requires. Can be reversed by a reduction in calories and or increased exercise.


Achieved by a balanced amount of calorie consumption and exercise resulting in normal levels of body fat and muscle mass.


This is higher than average levels of muscle mass with a relativity low body fat percentage, around 10 percent body fat or less. It can be achieved by regular exercise with a large percentage of this exercise being resistance training (weight training). Also a diet ideal for muscle development with a calorie intake slightly above the recommended amount.

What else can affect our fitness levels besides diet and exercise?

  • Stress
  • Sleep
  • Hormone levels
  • Injuries
  • Hydration
  • Illness

Recommended Health and Fitness Guidelines

  • Exercise – High intensity 3 times a week for around 20 minutes or medium intensity 5 times a week.
  • Body Fat Percentage – Men 8 – 20% Women 15 – 28%.
  • Sleep – 7 – 8 hours of sleep recommended to maintain optimal health.

Mental Health

The facts show that good lifestyle choices such as eating well and exercising regularly influences our mental health in a positive way.


Stress can worsen existing health conditions including obesity and is believed to accelerate the ageing process. Exercise is proven to be an effective way to relieve stress.


Genetics determine things like height and bone structure. It also determines the location of where body fat is stored. For example, the first body location for fat storage can be different for different people. For one person fat maybe stored first in the lower stomach area, for another person it could be the hips or thighs. Genetics doesn’t actually determine our overall body fat percentage, but life choices do determine it.


Despite popular belief, all our metabolisms differ only slightly. Foods we consume can affect the metabolism, obviously exercise can, and also the amount of muscle mass we have.

Calories In and Calories Out

Basically consuming more calories than your body requires results in the body storing the excess as body fat. The reverse happens when your bodies energy requirements exceeds the amount of calories you consume.

However all calories are not equal, the foods that you eat affect your hormone levels, and your hormones affect your bodies systems, including fat storage. So even if your calorie intake is at the right level for fat burning, you may still gain body fat if your hormones are out of balance.

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